This is a benign hyperplasia of fibrous connective tissue which develops as a reactive lesion to chronic mechanical irritation produced by an ill-fitting
denture. Basically, it is a harmless condition caused by the rubbing on the edge of dentures that do not fit a person’s mouth well. It is also referred to as denture induced fibrous hyperplasia. This develops slowly over a prolonged period of time. This is not a type of oral cancer.

Treatment includes immediate withdrawal of the ill-fitting prosthesis followed by topical application of antifungal agents and paste containing anesthetics with local analgesics. Fabrication of new denture should be carried out. Simple surgical removal of the excess tissues may be
indicated.

The lesion is usually painless and can occur on the maxilla or the mandible. Anterior locations are more common than the posterior and multiple folds are more common than a single fold. The size of the lesions varies from less than 1 cm to involving the entire vestibule of the arch.

The diagnosis is usually made clinically and is directly associated to someone wearing a denture. Rarely an incisional biopsy is made to rule out a malignant neoplasia. Epulis fissuratum is the third most common reactive lesion in the mouth after peripheral giant cell granuloma and pyogenic granuloma. The presence of epulis in patients without denture may be diagnostic of Crohn’s disease.